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Marxists argued for socialism and planning using Marx’s critique of capitalism and case for socialism, which were based on the LTV. Neoclassical economists argued value is subjective, and the marginal revolution formed the foundation for neoclassical economics, which offered reasons to expect calculation and knowledge issues in a planned economy. This is “Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk's Critique of Karl Marx” presented by Richard M. Ebeling. Can LTV be refuted without methodological individualism? Why or why not; and if so, how? Either: (1) explain why methodological individualism is necessary to refute LTV, (2) refute LTV without relying upon methodological individualism, or (3) defend LTV.
If a meteor hit the earth, it would have a value higher than that of other rocks, but this value would not be derived from additional labor used(and human access to space rocks could, for this hypothetical, be considered completely outside of human control and thus not be acquirable by any labor without luck). However, a higher value placed on the asteroid relative to other rocks would likely be agreed upon by individuals, by collections of individuals, and possibly even abstract philosophies, implying that that the LTV is an incomplete or false account of value, without requiring methodological individualism to prove it so.
Excellent answer!! It seems to me that one could make a similar argument, though without some of the power offered by a resource completely external to existing property holdings, vicinities, and other factors, using land and other natural resources. This is essential to certain arguments made by Austrians against socialists - such as Wieser, here:
"Land rent is, perhaps, the formation of value that is most frequently attacked in our present economy. Now I believe our examination will show that, even in the communistic state, there must be land rent. Such a state must, under certain circumstances, calculate the return from land, and must, from certain portions of land, calculate a greater return than from others: the circumstances upon which such a calculation is dependent are essentially the same as those which to-day determine the existence of rent, and the height of rent."
through which, seeing natural value, the "natural theory of value" (NTV, perhaps) opposes the labour theory of value (LTV), http://praxeology.net/FW-NV-II-7.htm